<?=$Title?>
ING Banner
Home > Public Information > Use of Observing Time and Scientific Productivity


Use of Observing Time and Scientific Productivity


Bibliographies

The ING asks users of its facilities to give proper acknowledgement to this effect in the papers that they publish. Authors are kindly requested to email the ING librarian with the publication details.

Paper lists

ING Technical Notes

Paper selections

Cumulative number of research papers based on ING data published in journals Nature and Science per year [ PNG | PDF ].

Analysis

Paper counts

This table shows the refereed-paper counts per telescope and year.

Number of refereed papers per year from first light [ PNG | PDF ].

Number of refereed papers per year [ PNG | PDF ].

Number of refereed papers per year [ PNG | PDF ].

Cumulative number of refereed published papers per year and telescope [ PNG | PDF ].

Cumulative number of refereed papers per year from first light [ PNG | PDF ].

Use of observing time and scientific productivity

ING Annual Report's chapter on the use of observing time and scientific productivity:

WHT only data:

Posters:

Telescope performance

Time observed:

Relative-to-night-length observed time defined as 100-(weather downtime percentage)-(technical downtime percentage) [ PNG | PDF ].

Technical downtime:

Technical downtime per semester excluding from the calculation S/D/commissioning nights as well as nights when visiting instruments were used [ PNG | PDF ].

Weather downtime:

Relative-to-night-length weather downtime per semester excluding from the calculation S/D/commissioning nights as well as nights when visiting instruments were used [ PNG | PDF ].

Fraction of observing time lost to bad weather at the WHT (blue curve) and INT (yellow curve). [ PNG | PDF ].

Monthly relative-to-night-length WHT weather downtime from 1989 to present. The average downtime is ~20% in semester A (February to July) and ~30% in semester B (August to January) [ PNG | PDF ].

Seasonal variation of weather downtime and length of night from 1989 to present. The thick black line indicates the duration of astronomical night, in hours. The border of the pink area indicates the (rather small) seasonal variation in the number of hours of good weather available, from a minimum in May, to a maximum in August. [ PNG | PDF ].

Number of proposals and oversubscription rates

Number of WHT proposals:

WHT number of proposal per community [ PNG | PDF ].

Number of INT proposals:

INT number of proposal per community. The long-term proposals of the Wide-Field Survey special call in the early 2000s are not counted in. [ PNG | PDF ].

WHT oversubscription factors:

WHT oversubscription factors (time demand divided by time available) per community and semester [ PNG | PDF ].

INT oversubscription factors:

INT oversubscription factors (time demand divided by time available) per user community and semester [ PNG | PDF ].

Telescope time allocation and paper authorship

WHT nights per type of allocation:

WHT's allocated nights. UK PATT: United Kingdom's Panel for the Allocation of Telescope Time; NL PC: Netherlands' Programme Committee; SP CAT: Spain's Comité de Asignación de Tiempos; ITP: International Time Programme; GT: Instrument Builders’ Guaranteed Time; TNG share: Time share programme with Telescopio Nazionale Galileo; S: Service time, including UK, NL and SP service allocations; D: Discretionary time, used for major maintenance activities, enhancements, calibration, quality control tests, etc., and partly for astronomy, for example, as compensation for breakdowns or for observations of targets of opportunity; Comm: Commissioning instrument time; Std: Standown; DDT: Director's Discretionary Time; SP SAT: Spanish Additional Time. SP CAT includes CAT DDT and SP SAT time. Override and target-of-opportunity telescope time allocations are excluded [ PNG | PDF ].

INT nights per type of allocation:

INT's allocated nights. UK PATT: United Kingdom's Panel for the Allocation of Telescope Time; NL PC: Netherlands' Programme Committee; SP CAT: Spain's Comité de Asignación de Tiempos; ITP: International Time Programme; S: Service time, including UK, NL and SP service allocations; D: Discretionary time, used for major maintenance activities, enhancements, calibration, quality control tests, etc., and partly for astronomy, for example, as compensation for breakdowns or for observations of targets of opportunity; Comm: Commissioning instrument time; Std: Standown; DDT: Director's Discretionary Time; SP SAT: Spanish Additional Time; INO: Iranian National Observatory´s telescope time. SP CAT includes: CAT DDT, SP SAT, and from 2004, CAT Service as well. Override and target-of-opportunity telescope time allocations are excluded [ PNG | PDF ].

Paper authorship per nationality:

Nationality of first author's main institution in refereed papers that used data from the ING telescopes. [ PNG | PDF ].

Instrument time allocation and paper use

WHT nights per instrument:

Allocated nights per instrument on the WHT. Only science nights are considered. Every year comprises data from semesters A and B. All private includes INTEGRAL. INGRID refers to when it was used without adaptive optics. NAOMI includes INGRID, OASIS and OSCA in combination with adaptive optics [ PNG | PDF ].

WHT papers per instrument:

Breakdown of refereed WHT papers by instrument used (a paper using more than one WHT instrument counts towards the totals for each instrument). All private includes INTEGRAL. Archive means papers that use data retrieved from the ING Archive (and mainly Aux/ACAM and ISIS). INGRID refers to when it was used without adaptive optics. NAOMI includes INGRID, OASIS and OSCA in combination with adaptive optics [ PNG | PDF ].

INT nights per instrument:

Allocated nights per instrument on the INT. Only science nights are considered. Service nights are excluded. Every year comprises data from semesters A and B [ PNG | PDF ].

INT papers per instrument:

Breakdown of refereed INT papers by instrument used (a paper using more than one INT instrument counts towards the totals for each instrument). The archival papers mostly use data from the WFC. All private includes the private instruments. Other ING includes other common-user instruments not listed individually [ PNG | PDF ].

Journals and paper distribution

WHT and INT paper distribution in the refereed journals scanned from 2011 to present time. [ PNG | PDF ].

User feedback

WHT and INT user satisfaction rating, as recorded in the observer feedbacks when they leave, from 1999 to present time. [ PNG | PDF ].

Comparison with other telescopes

  • Scientific impact of large telescopes 1991-1998.
    Number of Nature papers generated 1989-98 by ground-based optical telescopes with mirror diameter >3.5m (for comparison, figures for the 2.5-m INT and Nordic Optical Telescope are also included) [ JPEG | TIFF ].

  • The WHT one of the most scientifically productive telescopes in the world: C Benn and S Sánchez, 2001, "Scientific Impact of Large Telescopes", ING Newsl, 4, 15.
  • Comparison of ESO telescopes with other observatories, including ING:

    Article: http://www.eso.org/public/announcements/ann12025/.
    Graph: http://www.eso.org/public/archives/images/newsfeature/ann12025a.jpg.
    Report: Basic ESO Publication Statistics

  • Reports from the Red de Infraestructuras de Astronomía.

  • Trimble & Ceja, 2010, "Productivity and impact of astronomical facilities: A recent sample", Astr Nachr, 331, 338. Paper.

  • Comparison with other ORM telescopes:

    Cumulative paper counts of the ORM telescopes per year. These counts were retrieved from the list of publications that every telescope provides on their web sites [ PNG | TIFF ].

    Cumulative paper counts of the ORM telescopes since first light year. These counts were retrieved from the list of publications that every telescope provides on their web sites [ PNG | TIFF ].

    Count checks

    Paper counts by ING (blue) and retrieved from ADSLabs (red, http://labs.adsabs.harvard.edu/fulltext/) as a result of scanning the refereed journals listed below, and searching for a list of specific keywords: "William Herschel Telescope" OR "William Herschel Telescopes" OR "WHT". While the ING counts only include papers that make a direct use of the data, the ADS counts include all the papers that contain the searched keywords. The dashed line shows the ADS paper count but including all the refereed journals in the ADS database [ PNG | TIFF ].

    Paper counts by ING (blue) and retrieved from ADSLabs (red, http://labs.adsabs.harvard.edu/fulltext/) as a result of scanning the refereed journals listed below, and searching for a list of specific keywords: "Isaac Newton Telescope" OR "Isaac Newton Telescopes" OR "INT telescope". While the ING counts only include papers that make a direct use of the data, the ADS counts include all the papers that contain the searched keywords. The dashed line shows the ADS paper count but including all the refereed journals in the ADS database [ PNG | TIFF ].

    Paper counts by ING (blue) and retrieved from ADSLabs (red, http://labs.adsabs.harvard.edu/fulltext/) as a result of scanning the refereed journals listed below, and searching for a list of specific keywords: "Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope" OR "Jacobus Kapteyn Telescopes" OR "JKT". While the ING counts only include papers that make a direct use of the data, the ADS counts include all the papers that contain the searched keywords. The dashed line shows the ADS paper count but including all the refereed journals in the ADS database [ PNG | TIFF ].

    Refereed journals scanned: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Astronomical Journal, Astrophysical Journal (including Letters and Supplement Series), Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Nature, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and Science.



Top | Back

Contact:  (Public Relations Officer)
Last modified: 25 February 2014