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Producing PR Images

One of the best ways to promote our observatory is showing superb astronomical images obtained using the ING telescopes. For this reason we encourage observers to take good PR images. Full credit will be given to the authors of the images.

Images from the ING archive

Images of Messier objects potentially useful for our collections found in the ING archive are:

M2, M8, M10, M17, M23, M34, M39, M44, M49, M52, M59, M61, M67, M71, M72, M77, M78, M79, M80, M84, M85, M86, M88, M89, M91, M94, M102, M108, M110.

These images should be de-archived, reduced and if the result isn't good enough then it can be added to the current lists of targets.

Some observing guidelines

We aim at producing superb, colourful astronomical images of popular objects so when observing please follow the guidelines below.
  1. If you are observing at ING and you have a gap in your programme (for instance, in twilight when neither science nor calibration frames can be obtained), please select an object from our lists of targets (if you have more interesting targets than could be added to the lists, please let us know).
  2. Take the usual calibration frames: biases, sky flats. Take as many flats as possible. If sky flats are a few or none, then please do many dome flats.
  3. When pointing, you may want to take a glance image to improve the pointing and avoid any undesired artifact or gap on the detector.
  4. Exposure times should be adequate to get a good signal to noise ratio. Split the total exposure time into several short exposures, at least 3, in order to get rid of cosmic rays and to avoid saturation of the brightest objects in the field. The more splits the better.
  5. Do some dithering between the exposures (around 10 arcsec) if fringing is important or if your flat fields weren't good enough.
  6. The total exposure time should be the desired length plus one more exposure (one is removed later when combining the frames).
  7. No binning.
  8. Filter selection: try to choose B, V and R whenever it is possible. Use one or several narrow-band filters when the object shows an interesting morphology in such bands. For instance, with planetary nebulae try to use filters H-alpha (656.5 nm), [OIII] (500.7 nm) and HeII (468.6 nm).
  9. Exposure time should be roughtly as follows: tR=0.5tB; Vt=0.67tB. If you are observing with a new Red CCD, then the red exposure times can be even shorter.
  10. Always autoguide, even if you are taking many short exposures. Autoguiding must be good enough (no elongated images please!).
  11. Seeing can be any with extended objects but good or very good seeing is much better!
  12. Try to choose the CCD with the best cosmetics, if choice is possible.
  13. Please check that the image is well centered before starting a set of exposures and you aren't missing any parts.
  14. Please rotate the field of view in order to fit the image in the detector if necessary and if possible.
  15. Moon can be any but avoid pointing near the Moon!
  16. Photometric or spectroscopic conditions can be any.
  17. Weather can be cloudy or dusty (unless of course the signal is so poor that you can't see anything in the images...)
  18. If you are observing with a mosaic of CCDs, and the object fills more than one CCD, please shift the telescope in order to cover the gaps between the CCDs.

PFIP characteristics

Imaging features:
FOV: ~16x16 arcmin (9-arcsec gap), ~8x16 arcmin
Pixel scale: 0.24"/pixel
Image size: 4096*4100 (2050) pixels
Filters: Broad- and narow-band imaging.
Cosmetics: CCD2 better than CCD1.

Best for: Faint objects.

Relative Transmission Efficiency Factors:

Filter Airmass=1.0Airmass=1.5Airmass=2.0
Harris B1.00001.00001.0000
Harris V1.38011.45351.5292
Harris R1.43602.12802.2827

Targets for PFIP

Target name Position Remarks
AR (2000.0) Dec (2000.0)
NGC 45 00 14 03.8 -23 10 57 Please center on CCD2.
NGC 891 02 22 33.5 +42 20 56.9 Please center on CCD2. Size: 14*2 arcmin.
M 36 - NGC 1960. Open Cluster in Auriga. 05 35 59.5 +34 07 45 More info
M 50 - NGC 2323. Open Cluster in Monoceros 07 03 6.8 -08 19 50 More info
NGC 2903. Galaxy. 09 32 09.7 +21 30 07
NGC 3189. Galaxy Group 10 18 06.2 +21 49 52
NGC 3180. Galaxy. 10 18 16.8 +41 25 26.9
NGC 4038 and NGC 4029. Antenna Galaxies. 12 01 53.4 -18 52 35
HCG 61. Group of galaxies. 12 12 25.4 +29 09 56.9
M 106. Seyfert 1 galaxy. 12 18 57.6 +47 18 14.2 More info
NGC 4565. Seyfert 2 Galaxy. 12 36 20.9 +25 59 15.7
M 90. Seyfert galaxy. 12 36 49.4 +13 09 52 More info
M 68 - NGC 4590. Globular Cluster in Hydra 12 39 24.3 -26 44 28 More info
NGC 4894. A Galaxy in a galaxy cluster. 13 00 16.5 +27 58 02.9
M 63 - NGC 5055. Galaxy in Canes Venatici 13 15 42.3 +42 02 45 More info
NGC 5353. Galaxy in group of galaxies. 13 53 26.8 +40 16 58.9
NGC 5427. Seyfert 2 Galaxy. 14 03 25.6 -06 01 42.3
M 12 - NGC 6218. Globular Cluster in Ophiuchus 16 47 7.5 -01 56 37 More info
M 62 - NGC 6266. Globular Cluster in Ophiuchus 17 01 6.6 -30 06 48 More info
M 19 - NGC 6273. Globular Cluster in Ophiuchus 17 02 30.8 -26 15 47 More info
M 14 - NGC 6402. Globular Cluster in Ophiuchus 17 37 31.7 -03 14 43 More info
M 21 - NGC 6531. Open Cluster in Sagitarius 18 04 31.2 -22 29 53 More info
M 26 - NGC 6694. Open Cluster in Scutum 18 45 7.8 -09 23 54 More info
M 11 - BGC 6705. Wild Duck Cluster. 18 51 1.9 -06 15 53 More info
NGC 6946 20 34 52.7 +60 09 15 Please center on CCD2. Size: 9*9 arcmin.

ACAM characteristics

Imaging features:
FOV: 8.3 arcmin - circular
Pixel scale: 0.25 arcsec/pixel
Image size: ~1983×2002 pixels
Filters: Broad- and narrow-band filters. UBVRIZ normally.

Best for: Relatively small objects.


Targets for ACAM

Target name Position Remarks
RA (2000.0) Dec (2000.0)
NGC 1023. Group of galaxies. 02 40 24.16 +39 03 45.9
Hubbles Variable Nebula. NGC 2261. 06 39 10 +08 45 00
NGC 2392. Eskimo Nebula. 07 29 10.8 +20 54 42.5 H-alpha 656.5 3*10 min, [OIII] 500.7 3*10 min, HeII 468.6 3*10 min
M97 - NGC 3587. Planetary Nebula 11 14 47.7 +55 01 08.5
M 65 - NGC 3623. Galaxy in Leo 11 18 47.9 +13 05 37 More info
NGC3628. Radio Galaxy. 11 20 17.0 +13 35 22.2  
M 109 - NGC 3992. Galaxy in Ursa Major 11 57 28.8 +53 23 41 More info.
NGC 4147. Globular Cluster. 12 10 06.1 +18 32 31.8  
M 98 - NGC 4192. Galaxy in Coma Berenices 12 13 42.2 +14 54 40 More info
M 40. Double Star in Ursa Major 12 22 16.9 +58 05 43 More info.
M104 - NGC 4594. Sombrero Galaxy 12 39 54.4 -11 36 24 More info
M 60 - NGC 4649. Galaxy in Virgo 12 43 36.3 +11 33 40 More info
M5 - NGC 5904. Globular Cluster 15 18 33.22 +02 04 51.7  
M 107 - NGC 6171. Globular Cluster in Ophiuchus 16 32 25.1 -13 02 39 More info.
M 2-9. Butterfly Nebula. 17 05 37.7 -10 08 32.5 H-alpha 656.5 2 + 20 min, [OIII] 500.7 2 min, HeII 468.6 2 min
NGC 6302. Planetary Nebula 17 13 44.2 -37 06 14 H-alpha 656.5 2 + 20 min, [OIII] 500.7 2 + 20 min
M 9 - NGC 6333. Globular Cluster in Ophiuchus 17 19 7.2 -18 30 46 More info.
NGC 6537. Planetary Nebula. 18 05 13.1 -19 50 34.2 H-alpha 656.5 2 + 10 min, [OIII] 500.7 2 min, HeII 468.6 2 min
M 18 - NGC 6613. Open Cluster in Sagitarius 18 19 49.5 -17 07 53 More info
M 28 - NGC 6626. Globular Cluster in Sagitarius 18 24 25.2 -24 51 56 More info
M 69 - NGC 6637. Globular Cluster in Sagittarius 18 31 18.9 -32 20 59 More info
M 70 - NGC 6681. Globular Cluster in Sagitarius 18 43 6.9 -32 17 59 More info
M 54 - NGC6715. Globular Cluster in Sagittarius 18 55 1.1 -30 29 01 More info
M 73 - NGC 6994. Asterism in Aquarius 20 58 56.2 -12 38 10 More info.
M30 Globular Cluster 21 40 22.03 -23 10 44.6 More info

WFC characteristics

Imaging features:
FOV: ~34 arcmin - irregular, with ~1 arcmin gaps, 11.4x22.5 arcmin
Pixel scale: 0.33 arcsec/pixel
Image size: ~6000×6000 pixels
Filters: Broad- and narrow-band filters.

Best for: Extended objects, narrow-band imaging.


Targets for WFC

Target name Position Remarks
RA (2000.0) Dec (2000.0)
M 45. The Pleiades 03 46 54.9 +24 06 36 More info
M 38 - NGC 1912. Open Cluster in Auriga. 05 28 35.5 +35 49 00 More info
M 37 - NGC 2099. Open Cluster dense 05 52 17.5 +32 32 47 More info
M35 - NGC 2168. Open Cluster in Gemini 06 08 47.8 +24 19 53 More info
NGC 2264. Cone Nebula. 06 41 06 +09 53 00
M 41 - NGC 2287. Open Cluster in Cannis Major 06 45 55.3 -20 43 50 More info
NGC 2392. Planetary Nebula. 07 29 10.8 +20 54 42.5 HeII 468.6 2 min, [OIII] 500.7 2min, HeII 468.6 2 min
M 47 - NGC 2422. Open Cluster in Pupis 07 36 30.9 -14 29 45 More info
M 46 -NGC 2437. Open Cluster in Pupis 07 41 42.8 -14 48 44 More info
M 93 - NGC 2447. Open Cluster in Pupis 07 44 31.1 -23 51 42 More info
M 48 - NGC 2548. Open Cluster in Hydra 08 13 42.5 -05 47 42 More info
M 4 - NGC 6121. Globular Cluster in Scorpio 16 23 30.7 -26 31 43 More info
M 6 - NGC 6405. Open Cluster in Scorpio 17 36 40 -32 12 00 More info
M 7 - NGC 6475. Open Cluster in Scorpio 17 53 48.7 -34 48 56 More info
M 20. The Triffid Nebula. 18 02 23 -23 01 48 More info
M 24 - NGC 6603. Open Cluster in Sagitarius. Huge star cloud. 18 18 19.3 -18 24 53 More info
M 16 The Eagle Nebula. NGC 6611. Nebula with dust and cluster in Serpens 18 18 43.6 -13 46 52 More info
M 17. Omega Nebula. 18 20 53 -16 10 55 More info
M 25 - IC 4725. Open Cluster in Sagittarius 18 31 31.4 -19 14 55 More info
M 22 - NGC 6656. Globular Cluster in Sagitarius 18 36 19.2 -23 53 57 More info
M 55 - NGC 6809. Globular Cluster in Sagitarius 19 39 55.3 -30 58 05 More info
NGC 7000. North America. 20 58 47 +44 19 48
KjPn 8. Planetary Nebula. 23 24 10.4 +60 57 29 H-alpha 656.5 >30 min, [OIII] 500.7 >30 min

Reporting an image

If you obtain a nice reduced image, please contact the ING PR Officer (email at the bottom) and provide with the following information:

Name of the object:  
Credits:1 
Date: 
Detector: 
Instrument: 
Telescope: 
Filters:2  
Exposure length:3 
Files:4 
Notes:
1: Observers who carried out the observations and the names of the people who reduced the data, if any. Please include email addresses.
2: Including identification numbers.
3: Including average seeing on each filter.
4: Including calibrations.

If you already have got a nice image which you think can be part of our PR collections please don't hesitate to contact us. TIFF and DIN-A4 size at a resolution of 300 dpi are desireable.

Related links

To prepare a list of objects for any season:



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Contact:  (Public Relations Officer)
Last modified: 18 January 2012